Glossary

The glossary activity module enables participants to create and maintain a list of definitions, like a dictionary, or to collect and organise resources or information.

Glossaries have many uses, such as

  • A collaborative bank of key terms
  • A ‘getting to know you’ space where new students add their name and personal details
  • A ‘handy tips’ resource of best practice in a practical subject
  • A sharing area of useful videos, images or sound files
  • A revision resource of facts to remember


Browse the glossary using this index

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Abiogenesis

by Aliya Sayed - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:20 PM
 

The emergence of life forms emerging from non-living chemical systems. In contrast with spontaneous generation, abiogenesis is not a process that biologists think continues in a particular environment, such as a planet or moon, once a living system has emerged.

Synonyms: Autogenesis, Spontaneous Generation

Antonym: Biogenesis-the development of life from preexisting life

Appears in modules:  Origin Of Life

Further Reading : https://www.britannica.com/science/abiogenesis

Source: http://www.visionlearning.com/en/glossary/index/

 
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aboitic

by Deepika Vikyakumar - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:22 PM
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Describes the nonliving parts of the environment

 
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Abrasion

by Kanchan Chauhan - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:20 PM
 

Abrasion is the physical process of rubbing, scouring, or scraping whereby particles of rock (usually microscopic) are eroded away by friction.

The term corrasion (as distinct from corrosion: chemical weathering) is really a synonym for abrasion, but only with respect to running water for the deepening of valley floors. 

Examples:

1. Abrasion (or “corrasion,” q.v.) by wind-borne particles at Djadokhta, Mongolia: cliffs of massive red sandstones of Cretaceous age (Berkey and Morris, 1927). (Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History.)

2. Coastal abrasion occurs as breaking waves which contain sand and larger fragments erode the shoreline or headland. This removes material resulting in undercutting and possible collapse of unsupported overhanging cliffs.

3. The intensity of abrasion depends on the hardness, concentration, velocity and mass of the moving particles.

 

Sources :

http://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F3-540-31060-6_2

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrasion_(geology)

 

 
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Abscissa

by Sana Khan - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:21 PM
 

In mathematics, an abscissa is the number whose absolute value (modulus) is the perpendicular distance of a point from the vertical axis. Usually this is the horizontal coordinate of a point in a two-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system.

The term can also refer to the horizontal axis (typically x-axis) of a two-dimensional graph (because that axis is used to define and measure the horizontal coordinates of points in the space).

An ordered pair consists of two terms—the abscissa (horizontal, usually x) and the ordinate (vertical, usually y)—which define the location of a point in two-dimensional rectangular space.

Examples:

  • For the point (2, 3), 2 is called the abscissa and 3 the ordinate.
    • For the point (−1.5, −2.5), −1.5 is called the abscissa and −2.5 the ordinate.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abscissa

 
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Absolute Monarchy

by Hiral Sampat - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:21 PM
 

Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority that is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies. In contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of state's authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature.

A system of government headed by a monarch as the only source of power controlling all functions of the state.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_monarchy

Synonyms: kingship, queenship

 
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Absolute Value

by Yogendra Tripathi - Thursday, 23 March 2017, 12:46 PM
 

the absolute value of a number is the distance the number is from the zero point on the number line.  The absolute value of a number or an expression is always greater than or equal to zero (i.e. nonnegative).

Synonym:-Modulus

Example:-The absolute value of −9 is 9

  • The absolute value of 3 is 3
  • The absolute value of 0 is 0
  • The absolute value of −156 is 156

 

 
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Absolute Zero

by Aliya Sayed - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:21 PM
 

Absolute zero is the lowest possible temperature where nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance.

Absolute zero is the point at which the fundamental particles of nature have minimal vibrational motion, retaining only quantum mechanical, zero-point energy-induced particle motion.

By international agreement, absolute zero is defined as precisely; 0 K on the Kelvin scale, which is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale; and –273.15 degrees Celsius on the Celsius scale.

Absolute zero is also precisely equivalent to; 0 degrees R on the Rankine scale (also a thermodynamic temperature scale); and –459.67 degrees F on the Fahrenheit scale.

While scientists can not fully achieve a state of “zero” heat energy in a substance, they have made great advancements in achieving temperatures ever closer to absolute zero (where matter exhibits odd quantum effects).

Synonyms: Absence Of heat

Appears in modules:  Energy, States of Matter, Temperature

Further Reading : https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18541-what-happens-at-absolute-zero/

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/absolute_zero.htm

 
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Academia

by Priyanka Chugh - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:21 PM
 

Meaning/Definition:

A collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole.

The word comes from the akademeia just outside ancient Athens, where the gymnasium was made famous by Plato as a center of learning.

The definition of academia is the world within an educational community.

Examples:

The college does not have any sports teams because its focus is solely on its academia.

Gail found the real world of business to be quite different from what she learned in academia.

Cara wanted to go to Harvard University because of the school’s great reputation in academia.

Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_education_terms_(A%E2%80%93C)

 

 
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Accelaration

by Aliya Sayed - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:21 PM
 

The change in an object's velocity over time, measured in distance per unit time per unit time (for example meters per second per second or m/s2). Compare to velocity. Acceleration (a) is calculated by dividing the change (symbolized by Δ, the Greek letter delta) in velocity (v) by the change in time (t):

a = Δv/ Δt.

This can also be written as:

a = v2-v1/ t2-t1, where v1 and t1 denote the starting velocity and time and v2 and t2 denote the ending velocity and time.

To illustrate, imagine a car speeding up (accelerating) from a stand still (0 meters/second) to a speed of 15 meters/seconds over the course of 5 seconds. The car's total increase in velocity is 15 meters/second. During each of the 5 seconds that the car is accelerating, its velocity increases by 3 meters/second until it reaches its top speed. (After one second the car is traveling at a velocity of 3 meters/second; after 2 seconds, it's traveling at a velocity of 6 meters/second, and so on). Therefore, the car's rate of acceleration is 3 meters per second per second or 3 m/s2. Using the equation above:

a = v2-v1/ t2-t1

a = 15-0 / 5-0

a = 15/5

a = 3 m/s2

Synonyms:Change, Alteration

Antonyms: Deceleration

Appears in modules: Gravity, The Hydrologic Cycle

Related Words:  

Gravitational Accelaration - the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation. Neglecting friction such as air resistance, all small bodies accelerate in a gravitational field at the same rate relative to the center of mass. This equality is true regardless of the masses or compositions of the bodies.

At different points on Earth, objects fall with an acceleration between 9.78 and 9.83 m/s2 depending on altitude and latitude, with a conventional standard value of exactly 9.80665 m/s2

Source: http://www.visionlearning.com/en/glossary/index/

 
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Acceleration

by Deepika Vikyakumar - Monday, 16 January 2017, 12:21 PM
 

[noun] The change in an object's velocity over time, measured in distance per unit time per unit time (for example meters per second per second or m/s2).

Acceleration (a) is calculated by dividing the change (symbolized by Δ, the Greek letter delta) in velocity (v) by the change in time (t):

a = Δv/ Δt.

This can also be written as:

a = v2-v1/ t2-t1, where v1 and t1 denote the starting velocity and time and v2 and t2 denote the ending velocity and time.

To illustrate, imagine a car speeding up (accelerating) from a stand still (0 meters/second) to a speed of 15 meters/seconds over the course of 5 seconds. The car's total increase in velocity is 15 meters/second. During each of the 5 seconds that the car is accelerating, its velocity increases by 3 meters/second until it reaches its top speed. (After one second the car is traveling at a velocity of 3 meters/second; after 2 seconds, it's traveling at a velocity of 6 meters/second, and so on). Therefore, the car's rate of acceleration is 3 meters per second per second or 3 m/s2. Using the equation above:

a = v2-v1/ t2-t1
a = 15-0 / 5-0
a = 15/5
a = 3 m/s2

Appears in modules:

Example:

1>. If G is the acceleration of gravity at the equator and g that at any latitude X, then g= G
2>. The car has a modified version of a jet engine, it has a rapid rate of acceleration.

         

 

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acceleration

 

 

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